Sputtering Process

Pulsed Laser deposition
Sputtering Process In a basic sputtering process, the cathode plate is bombarded by highly energetic positive Ar ions and generates plasma. The bombardment results removal of target atoms (sputtering), and deposition of them on the substrate and making the thin film.
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Why should an electron microscope sample be prepared?

Why should an electron microscope sample be prepared?

Pulsed Laser deposition
Without Sample preparation step With Sample preparation step Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is a powerful tool for information on the structure and other nanoscale characteristics of a specimen. This microscope provides nanoscale images which can be used to study various samples, including ceramics, metals, alloys, semiconductors, biological samples, etc. For some specimens, a sample preparation step is required before imaging. This step involves deposition of a 10 nm layer of conductive material such as gold, silver, platinum, or chromium on the sample. High-energy electrons, which collide with the sample during the microscopic process, transfer part of their energy and thus heat up the sample. If the specimen is sensitive to electron beams, such as biological samples, the collision of these beams will damage all or part of the sample structure.…
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