Chalcogenide Thin Films Deposition
Chalcogenides are materials that contain at least one of the chalcogen elements, the substances of group 16 of the periodic table(sulfur, selenium, tellurium, etc.). Chalcogenic glass has received a lot of attention due to its special optical properties, such as high refractive index, infrared(IR) transparency, nonlinear optical properties, and reversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline. Photovoltaic cells are one of the applications of chalcogenide thin films. Optical properties and other characteristics of thin films (thermal, mechanical, resistance, chemical, photo-sensitivity, etc.) are highly dependent on the deposition methods. Depending on how the thin film is deposited, the stoichiometry, structure, defect stats, and many other features can be controlled.
Thermal evaporation method is used for the deposition of the binary Chalcogenic materials such as As-S(Se) and Ge-S(Se). This method is also used for the deposition of Amorphous Selenium for use in X-ray sensitive flat panels. Thermal evaporation is very popular among thin film deposition methods due to its simplicity and low-cost, reproducibility, and the ability to coat the substrate with a large area.
Sputtering in Chalcogenide Thin Films Deposition
Sputtering is one of the most suitable methods for wide range of Chalcogenide thin films deposition. Thickness uniformity control is best achieved in all substrate areas using the sputtering method, but the deposition rate of Chalcogenide materials is low with this method and is less than 1 nm/s. Because most Chalcogenide materials have low electrical conductivity, the use of RF sputtering is more recommended for these materials.
Pulsed Laser in Chalcogenide Thin Films Deposition
The Pulsed Laser Deposition(PLD) method has also been used to deposit thin films of Chalcogenides. One of the advantages of using this method is the deposition of thin films with completely the same stoichiometry as the target material. VacCoat Ltd. products in various models have the ability to deposit thin films with all three methods of sputtering, thermal evaporation and PLD. For more information please visit our website.